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Facts about India - Infrastructure

Busiest Bridge in India
Howrah Bridge (also known as Rabindra Setu) on the Hooghly River in West Bengal is the busiest bridge in India. Howrah Bridge is a famous landmark of Kolkata. It bears the weight of a daily traffic of approx 150,000 vehicles, and 4,000,000 pedestrians. Howrah bridge is a cantilever truss bridge, constructed entirely by riveting, without nuts or bolts. The construction of the Howrah Bridge was started in 1937 and the bridge was opened to traffic on February 1943. The bridge has a central span of 1500 ft between centers of main towers. It has an anchor arm of 325ft each and a cantilever arm of 468ft each. The suspended span of the bridge is 564ft

Highest Airport in India
Leh airport is the highest airport in India. In fact it is the highest commercial airport in the world. Leh airport is situated at an altitude of about 3000 meter. The airport has been renamed after Koshak Bakola, a spiritual leader of the Ladakh region. Koshak Bakola also served as India's Ambassador to Mangolia. Leh is a district located in the Ladakh region of the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Its average elevation is 3650 metres. The temperatures in Leh vary from -30°C in winters to 40°C in summers. Leh is a popular tourist destination. Leh is a center of Tibeto-Buddhist culture and is dotted with numerous colorful gompas.

Highest Dam in India
Tehri Dam on Bhagirathi River is the highest dam in India. With a height of 261 meters, Tehri Dam is the sixth highest dam in the world. Tehri dam is the main dam of the Tehri Hydro Project, a major power project located in the state of Uttarakhand. The dam's projected capabilities include an power generation capacity of 2400 MW, stabilise irrigation to an area of 6,000 km² and a supply of 270 million gallons of drinking water to Delhi and cities in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Tehri Dam was approved in 1972 and its construction was started in 1978. The dam was in the controversy due to environmental reasons. The main dam will produce 2000 MW of electricity when completed. There is another smaller dam 14 km downstream at Koteshwar that will produce 400 MW of electricity.

Largest Canal in India
Indira Gandhi Canal is the largest canal in India. The canal is 650 km long and starts from the Harike Barrage, a few kilometers below the confluence of the Sutlej and Beas rivers in Punjab. It flows through Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan, with the major length of the canal flowing through Rajasthan. The canal terminates near Jaisalmer in Rajasthan. The construction of Indira Gandhi Canal was started in 1958. The main objective behind building the canal is to convert the part of Thar desert from wasteland to agriculturally productive area. The canal was earlier known as Rajasthan Canal and its name was changed in 1984. Indira Gandhi Canal uses water released from Pong dam.

Largest Reservoir in India
Indira Sagar Dam on the river Narmada has the largest reservoir in India with a full submergence of 913 sq. km. The dam is proposed to be 92 m high and 653 m long with a slightly curved alignment of 880 m radius across river Narmada near village Narmada Nagar of Development Block Punasa of the Khandwa district in Madhya Pradesh. Indira Sagar Dam will have a gross storage of 12.22 Bm3 and a live storage of 9.75 Bm3. Indira Sagar dam will have an installed capacity of 1000 MW and annual irrigation of 2.65 Lakh Ha. on a CCA of 1.23 Lakh Ha. The total drainage area at the proposed dam site of Indira Sagar Project is 61642 sq. km.

Longest Dam in India
Hirakud Dam built on Mahanadi River is the longest dam in India. The overall length of the main dam is 4.8 km, and the total length is 25.8km with dam and dykes taken together. The dam is about 15 km upstream of Sambalpur town in State of Orissa and was the first post independence major multipurpose river valley project in India. The dam irrigates 436000 ha of CCA in Mahanadi delta and has an installed capacity of 307.5 MW. Hirakud Dam is a composite structure of Earth, Concrete and Masonry. Hirakud Dam intercepts 83400 sq. km (32200 sq miles) of Mahanadi catchments. It has a reservoir spread of 743 sq km at full reservoir level and the reservoir has a storage of 5818 M. Cum with gross of 8136 M Cum.

Longest Railway Bridge in India
Nehru Setu Bridge near Dehri on the river Sone is the longest railway bridge in India. The bridge is near Sasaram on Kolkata-Delhi Line. It is 3.065km long and has 93 spans of 30.5m each. Next to Nehru Setu is the Narnarayan Setu bridge over the Brahmaputra. The bridge links Jogighopa to Pancharatna (in Assam). It has a total length of 2.3km and has 18 spans, each about 120m, with 2 spans of 30.5m. The bridge over Ganga near Patna is 2km long.

Longest Railway Platform in India
The platform of Kharagpur Railway Station is the longest railway platform in India. The length of the Kharagpur Railway platform is 1072.5m. The platform was originally 716m long. It's length was extended twice, once to 833m and then to its present length. Excluding subway platforms (the Chicago subway has the longest one), Kharagpur has the longest railway platform in the world. Kharagpur is located in the Midnapore West district of the state of West Bengal. It is famous as the place where the first Indian Institute of Technology was established. Kharagpur also has one of the biggest railway workshops in India.

Longest River Bridge in India
The Mahatma Gandhi Setu bridge over the river Ganga in Patna is the world's longest river bridge. The bridge spans over 5.575 km from Hajipur at the north end to Patna at the south end. Patna is located on the south bank of the river Ganga. Patna has a very long riverline, and it is surrounded on three sides by rivers Ganga, Sone, and Punpun. Just to the north of Patna across the river Ganga flows the river Gandak. Patna is a historic city and an important pilgrimage center for Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains. Patna houses one of the five Sikh Takhats -Takhat Patna Sahib. The Buddhist and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir or Rajgriha, Nalanda, Bodhgaya and Pawapuri are all nearby. It is the ideal gateway for all the places on this circuit.

Longest Sea Bridge in India
Pamban Bridge also known as Annai Indira Gandhi Bridge is the longest sea bridge in India. The 2.3 km long bridge on the Palk Strait connects Rameswaram island to mainland India. The railway bridge is noted for its unique opening to let the ships pass through the sea. The bridge was opened for traffic in 1914. Bridge contains vertical lift section, which is still functioning well. It carries meter gauge trains on it. However, the Indian Railways is upgrading it to carry broad gauge trains. The scenery around the bridge is breathtaking. The view of the distant sea and the string of islands on the left of Pamban island is simply awesome.

Longest Span Cantilever Bridge in India
Jadukata Bridge, located at Ranikor in West Khasi Hills District in Meghalaya, built across Jadukata River is the longest span cantilever bridge in India. The bridge has a central span of 140m. Jadukata bridge on Mawsynram Balat Maheshkhola Road is labout 130 km away from Shillong, the capital of Meghalaya. Jadukata Bridge is near the Indo-Bangladesh border and forms a vital link on an important road in this border state. The bridge was built by Gamon India Limited, Mumbai. The total cost of the bridge was around Rs 10 crore. Jadukata Bridge also won the ICI MC Bauchemie Award for Outstanding Concrete Structures.

Tallest Bridge in India
The Panvalnadi bridge on the Panval river in Ratnagiri District of Maharashtra is presently the tallest bridge in India. The tallest pier of the bridge is 64m above bed level and the length of the bridge is 424m. The bridge was built for Konkan Railway and was the first bridge built in India using the incremental launching technique. The bridge superstructure is a single-cell continuous prestressed concrete box girder with nine intermediate 40m spans and two end spans of 30m each. The substructure consists of hollow octagonal reinforced concrete piers resting on open foundations. In 1995, the bridge received the Most Outstanding Concrete Structure in India Award from the American Concrete Institute. However, soon the bridge will lose its coveted title of being the tallest bridge in India. Konkan Railway is currently laying down railway line between Katra and Laole in Jammu & Kashmir. The railway line will have two bridges that would be taller than the Panvalnadi bridge. One will be over River Chenab with a height of 359m while the other will be over Anji Khad at a height of 189m.

 

Building Spins 360 Degrees

Company in Brazil (Suite Vollard) constructed a building in which each floor can rotate 360 degrees. Each building has 11 apartments and each apartment can spin individually in any direction. One rotation takes a full hour, but apartment owner can set rotation speed through apartment control panel. Facades are made of three different types of glass which give wonderful effects when building spins during the sunset. Cost of each apartment is $US 300,000.00.

 

Most Dangerous Bridges in the World

Which is the most dangerous bridge in the world? The one at the highest crossing in the world, or one with weak structure! Well, maybe both of these. Bridges are used for crossing over a hurdle such as gorge or river. Here are some of the most dangerous and precarious bridges in the world.

1. Inca Rope Bridge
The bridge is situated in the southern province of Kanas, and made of special herbs through manual labor. The structure made of ropes spans 366 meters and is renovated every year by the local inhabitants. They are a simple suspension type bridge used for crossing deep rivers, gorges to facilitate travel within the Inca Empire and were an integral part of its road network. Supported by plaited branches and cables made of grass these bridges could sustain pressures of speeding horses and carts.
 
2. Hussaini – Borit Lake, Pakistan
The Hussaini-Borit Lake Bridge in Northern Pakistan is a major tourist spot for sheer thrills. Built on Hussaini Borit Lake, no authentic record is available of its creator. This picturesque piece of engineering is considered among the most dangerous bridges in the world because of the difficulty it poses while crossing. This is because of the instability in balance and wide spacing of the wooden planks to step on. The bridge swings viciously due to winds and travelers risk the chance of being thrown off in the water to possible death. It is located close to the village Passu surrounded by small hamlets.
 
3. Glen Nevis Wire Rope Bridge
It is a fine-looking bridge and popular in Lochaber, Scotland, having Fort William located at its base. It is surrounded by the Mamore range in the south, while Ben Lewsi which is the highest mountains located in the British Isles, cover the north.,
It has one of the three highest waterfalls in Scotland named Steall Falls, where the Allt Coire a’Mhail meets Nevis in the glen. Glen Nevis is a picturesque and well-liked glen in Lochaber, Highland, Scotland
 
4. Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge
The famous Carrick-a-Rede rope bridge spans a chasm 80 feet deep. Earlier its structure had only one cable hand bar and broadly placed planks which enabled the people to go across. The single hand bar was later substituted with two hand bar bridge. The existing one was set up as an additional security measure.Though there is no major accident on record, on many occasions visitors had to be evacuated as they were unable to walk back over the bridge. Constructed to serve the requirement of local fisher folk, the uniqueness of its construction made it a tourist destination.


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